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    Title: 探討美國內戰前後期間,二位黑人講道者John Jasper和Daniel Alexander Payne,其講道如何帶出解放、自由的信息
    A Study of the Message of Liberation and Freedom in Two Black Preachers during the American Civil War: John Jasper and Daniel Alexander Payne.
    Authors: 畢瑪坦西給安
    Pima, Tansikian
    Contributors: 台灣神學院
    Keywords: 約翰 賈斯帕、丹尼爾 亞歷山大 佩恩、奴隸制度、解放、自由、黑人講道、民間講道者
    John Jasper, Daniel Alexander Payne, Slavery, liberation, freedom, black preaching, folk preacher
    Date: 2016-06-07
    Issue Date: 2017-01-12T06:50:56Z (UTC)
    Abstract: 中文摘要:
    本論文以美國內戰前後時期的二位黑人講道者,分別是John Jasper(1812-1901) 和Daniel Alexander Payne(1811-1893)為主要研究之對象,以探討黑人講道如何帶出解放與自由的信息。故本研究是以《當代講道學》講章分析的方法論,即從聖經、詮釋、神學、講道學不同的向度,進行二位黑人講道者之講章分析與比較。在不同講道者和所處不同處境之下,他們如何帶出解放與自由的信息,並比較出其中之異同,且嘗試探討其可能原因。
    總概來說,黑人講道在其歷史以來,與奴隸制度惡法和後來特殊處境密切且有不可分的關係,因此黑人講道者在其講章之中,如上述四個面向中,從個人轉化為起點,進而能使其內心和心理受到改變,甚至是進而改變社會的結構和本質,並帶出心靈或身體的自由。僅管,本文中所提關於「解放」的根源,與黑人「解放神學」一致,是基於聖經中福音的本質,上帝在以色列歷史和人類歷史中發出拯救行動的依據,當然也會在黑人受壓迫和不公義歷史的處境之中。但本文中主要關注在於黑人講道者,他們如何透過講道內容和方式,以帶出解放與自由的信息。
    從本論文的研究分析,兩位講道者的講章分別都有帶出解放與自由的信息。當然,由於他們生長背景和受教育機會之不同,加上處境之不同、聽眾之不同和傳講時的場合也有所不同,因此,他們慣常會使用帶出解放與自由信息的方式,也會有所不同。就以傳承「民間講道者」傳統的Jasper來說,他常常是透過一種確信上帝總是為受壓迫者、被邊緣化者和軟弱者施行大能並施行解救的詮釋視角,經過他以故事性、戲劇性、詩性、想像力、圖像、編碼、論述、慶賀等修辭方式,總能在最後帶出黑人聽眾期待的解放與自由。另外,Jasper的講章,似乎較關注在「來世盼望」,也就是在另一個世界之中,「心靈」得以完全自由的狀態。
    然而,一直就是當代黑人講道者精英的Payne,並且,因他管理教會主教的身份,和參與教育的職責,他的講章除了也具有奴隸講道雄辯和故事性、詩性、圖像和慶賀帶出解放和自由的信息之外,他更多的時候是使用理性論述的方式,並強調教牧職者道德品格的養成和知識的教育,就如同Croft所言,是對「今世盼望」的教導。
    當然,就黑人教會歷史以來,黑人講道者一直都是站在「上帝是公平、公正、公義行事」的態度來發聲。這實在是我們所有身為上帝僕人,特別是台灣原住民教會講道者,值得反思和效法的。

    英文摘要:Abstract:
    This thesis is a study of the message of liberation and freedom in two black preachers, John Jasper and Daniel Alexander Payne who had witnessed the American Civil War. In order to analyze and compare their sermons, this study uses four different dimensions of the sermon analysis of contemporary preaching, namely through bible, interpretation, theology and homiletics. How to understand different preachers with different situations bringing out the message of liberation and freedom, this thesis in answering this question compares their similarities and differences, and attempts to discuss those possible causes.
    Generally speaking, black preaching had been deeply affected by the slavery, and inseparable from this special situation. Therefore, the sermons of black preachers, as above-mentioned four dimensions, took individual transformation as a starting point, furthermore changed the listeners’ lives, and finally made individuals free. The origin of "liberation" mentioned in this thesis is consistent with "the Black liberation theology" due to their common base on the nature of the biblical gospel. Since God takes a rescuing mission in the history of Israel and the history of mankind, of course, he also does in the oppression and injustice suffered by the black people. However, this thesis focuses on black preachers themselves, and studies how they brought out the message of liberation and freedom through the contents and methods of their preaching.
    From the analysis result of this thesis, two preachers’ sermons both had brought out the message of liberty and freedom. On the other hand, as a result of their different backgrounds, educations, situations, and audiences, they used different ways in their preaching for the purpose of bringing out the message of liberation and freedom. For Jasper, who inherited the "folk preachers" tradition, God was always seen as the great savior of the oppressed people. Through Jasper’s rhetorical device such as narrative, drama, poetry, imagination, pictures, coding, discourses, celebrations, etc., this black preacher always brought out the message of liberty and freedom to the expecting black audience in the final. Furthermore, his sermons seem to be more concerned about "the hope of afterlife", that is, another world where "soul" will be completely in a free state.
    However, for Payne, who was an outstanding contemporary black preacher as well as a bishop managing churches and taking responsibility for education, therefore like the other black preachers he also used eloquent narrative, poetry, pictures, celebrations, etc. for the purpose of bringing out the message of liberation and freedom, but more often he used the rational discourses, and emphasized the cultivation of moral character and knowledge of minister. Just as Croft said, it is a teaching of "the hope of this life".
    Since the history of black churches, black preachers always hold the belief that "God is fair, justice and acts rightly" and thus speak for God. For those who are the servants of God, and especially the Taiwan aboriginal church preachers, black preachers are really and certainly worthy to keep us reflecting and emulating.
    Appears in Collections:[台灣神學院] 研究部-神學碩士班(Th.M.)
    [14.研究部-神學碩士(Th.M.)] 學位論文

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