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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.taitheo.org.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/5980


    Title: 從羅馬書的“信” 和 “義” 看因信稱義
    Authors: 陳維進
    Contributors: 12.研究部-神學博士班(Ph.D.)
    Keywords: 因信稱義
    justification by faith
    信心
    faith
    信實
    faithfulness

    righteousness
    稱義
    justification
    拯救
    salvation
    盼望
    hope
    歸算
    impute
    Date: 2014-12-29
    Issue Date: 2015-02-04T06:50:15Z (UTC)
    Abstract: 一般是以人的角度來看“信”(pi,stij)和因信稱義。可是,LXX的“信”和“義”(dikaiosu,nh)在與上帝連接下卻能表達上帝的信實和上帝的拯救作為。這表示“信”、“義”、及因信稱義似乎能以另一角度來詮釋。因此,在上帝是否失信的敘事情境底下,本文透過上下文語境和詞組關係的解經方式來分析同時出現在羅馬書四段經文(羅1:16-17;3:21-31;4:1-5:2;9:30-10:11)中的“信”、“義”、及因信稱義。結果本文顯示以上帝的角度來詮釋羅馬書中的“信”、“義”、及因信稱義是另一個可能的詮釋方向,條件是它們必須與上帝連接或是處在與上帝有關的上下文語境中。因此,“信”、“義”、及因信稱義能分別地被理解為上帝的信實、上帝的拯救作為、以及因上帝的信實而施行的拯救作為。這樣的詮釋與LXX的“信”和“義”在與上帝連接下所表達的意義一致。可是,本文的詮釋結果卻與緒論中12位學者的詮釋有不同的部份,也有相同的部份。
    對於羅馬書的因信稱義,它呈現兩種不同層面的解釋。從上帝的層面來理解因信稱義,其結果可歸納為:源自上帝自始至終的信實,藉著基督的忠心所成就及揭露的拯救作為,因上帝的恩典而釋放所有相信的人。這是上帝賜予人的一種保證。另一方面,以人的層面來理解的因信稱義,它的解釋是:人相信上帝信實拯救的行動在上帝的恩典下被看成是正確的行動,以致人對被上帝釋放及拯救的恩典有把握。上帝於此賜予人一種的盼望。所以,上帝藉著兩種不同層面的因信稱義賜予人保證與盼望。這保證與盼望使人產生繼續相信及對上帝忠心的行動,而參與在上帝新創造的行動中。而這一切的成就皆出於上帝的信實和恩典。
    不單如此,上帝使人在基督裡經歷被上帝拯救的果效和改變也是一種新創造的作為。同時,它也呈現了三一上帝對新創造的信實。所以,因信稱義不單可以從救恩論或教會論的角度來理解,它其實也能以上帝論或三一論來詮釋。另外,把“信”詮釋為上帝的信實的情況也能除去“信”與律法的工作的對立或福音與律法的對立的局面。這是因為人律法的工作、上帝的信實、及上帝的拯救作為皆是律法所帶出的目的。所以,上帝的信實和拯救作為幫助人脫離被罪捆綁的困境,使人能行出律法的工作或正確的行動。並且,上帝也藉著聖靈的參與和幫助在所有相信的人身上繼續成就律法這三項目的。
    另外,本文把上帝的“義”詮釋為上帝的拯救作為的方向,就不包括了歸算、注入、法庭式宣告無罪、義人身份、或正確關係等的詮釋。這是因為上帝的拯救作為把人從被罪權勢捆綁之下轉移進入在基督裡,從而釋放(dikaio,w)人。上帝釋放人的行動就表達了新創造的創造論。所以,耶穌基督的死及復活似乎就不是一種贖罪的表達,而是一種新創造的表達。結果是透過上帝恩典的啟動,人就在基督裡而成為新創造,以致人脫離罪權勢的捆綁,從而經歷被釋放的恩典。這表示保羅似乎改變了過去贖罪的觀念。因此,人在被上帝拯救後就靠著聖靈的大能去行出正確的行動,以致人能成為正直的人。所以,因信稱義就不單只是有關個人如何得救或是如何把外邦人圈入上帝的子民中而已,因信稱義也是在信實上帝所賜予的保證和盼望中以繼續相信和忠心的行動參與在上帝的新創造行動中,以恢復上帝與人、人與人、人與社會或世界的關係和秩序。
    被詮釋為上帝的信實的“信”表達了上帝自始至終是信實的。上帝的信實主導了拯救的作為,以致被破壞的關係能藉著上帝的拯救作為重新被更新。因此,人就在上帝的信實中以繼續相信和忠心的行動來參與在上帝的新創造行動中,並在行動中期待因信稱義所賜予的保證和盼望在終末上帝的信實中實現。

    Generally, "faith" (pi,stij) and justification by faith is viewed from the human perspective. However, when "faith" and "righteousness" (dikaiosu,nh) are linked with God, they actually can be understood as God's faithfulness and God's saving action respectively, which is the way they are used in the LXX. This means that the meaning of "faith", "righteousness", and justification by faith could be expressed from another point of view. Therefore, against the narrative background of God that can not be unfaithful, as well as in terms of the context of verses and syntagmatic relations, this thesis analyzes the four passages in Romans (Rom 1:16-17; 3:21-31; 4:1-5:2; 9:30-10:11), in which "faith" and "righteousness" appear in the same context. Following the analysis, this thesis comes to the conclusion that it is possible for "faith", "righteousness", and justification by faith to be understood from God's point of view, provided that they are linked to God or the context is related to God. Thus, "faith", "righteousness", and justification by faith can be interpreted as God's faithfulness, God's saving action , and God's saving action which is carried out by God's faithfulness respectively. These explanations coincide with the LXX understanding of "faith" and "righteousness" when these words are linked to God. However, the conclusion partly differs from and partly coincides with the interpretation of the twelve scholars who are discussed in the Introduction.
    In Romans, justification by faith can be expressed from two different points of view. From God's point of view, justification by faith can be interpreted as God's saving action, which originates from God's endless faithfulness, is fulfilled and revealed by Christ's faithfulness, and sets free those who believe, through God's grace. This is a guarantee given by God. From the human perspective, justification by faith can be interpreted as: people believe in God's faithful saving action through God's grace, and their believing action is seen as correct action, thus establishing confidence in God's liberating action and salvation. This is the hope given by God. Therefore, God gives certainty and hope through both of these two different points of view of justification by faith. The certainty and hope bring forth the continuing believing action and faithful action in believers toward God and thus lead them to participate in God's act of new creation. All these things happen due to God's faithfulness and grace.
    Not only that, those who are in Christ and experience the effects and changes resulting from God's saving action, are actually experiencing an act of new creation. This shows that the Triune God is faithful to the new creation. Therefore, justification by faith not only can be viewed from the perspective of Soteriology or Ecclesiology, it also can be interpreted from the Doctrine of God or of the Trinity. Furthermore, "faith" that is interpreted as God's faithfulness can remove the situation where "faith" is pitted against the works of law, or Gospel against Law. This is because the works of law, the faithfulness of God, and the saving action of God are actually the purposes which the Law aims to achieve. Therefore, both faithfulness and the saving action of God will help people break away from the bondage of sin. As a result, people are able to carry out the works of the law or correct action. In addition, God will continue to fulfill these three purposes of Law in those who believe through the involvement and support of the Holy Spirit.
    As for "righteousness", it can be interpreted as God's saving action. This interpretation excludes the concepts of imputation, infusion, forensic acquittal, righteous status, or right relationship. God's saving action transfers the believers from the bondage of sin to a life in Christ and as a result the believers are set free (dikaio,w) by God. The action of setting people free is an action of new creation. Therefore, the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ seems to be more than expiation or atonement, but rather a kind of new creation. As a result, with the initiative action taken by God, people become a new creation in Christ and thus break away from the bondage of sin, so that he/she experiences the grace of setting free. This shows that Paul seems to have changed the past atonement concept. Consequently, the believers trust the power of Holy Spirit after being saved by God and are enabled to work out the correct action and become a righteous person. Hence, justification by faith expresses not only a concern for individual salvation or inclusion of Gentiles in the fellowship of God's people, it also expresses concern for the certainty and hope given by the God who is faithful, so that the believers are able to continue to believe and faithfully participate in God's new creation action in order to restore the relationship and order between God and humanity, human and human, and humanity and the world.
    "Faith" can be interpreted as God's faithfulness, the endless faithfulness of God. The faithfulness of God dominates the saving action, so that the jeopardized relationship can be restored and renewed by the saving action of God. Therefore, through the faithfulness of God, the believers continue to believe and faithfully participate in God's new creation action. At the same time, the believers also hope for the certainty and hope given by God through the justification by faith in order that these promises can be fulfilled eschatologically by God's faithfulness.
    Appears in Collections:[台灣神學院] 研究部-神學博士班(Ph.D.)
    [13.研究部-神學博士(Ph.D.)] 學位論文

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