Generally, "faith" (pi,stij) and justification by faith is viewed from the human perspective. However, when "faith" and "righteousness" (dikaiosu,nh) are linked with God, they actually can be understood as God's faithfulness and God's saving action respectively, which is the way they are used in the LXX. This means that the meaning of "faith", "righteousness", and justification by faith could be expressed from another point of view. Therefore, against the narrative background of God that can not be unfaithful, as well as in terms of the context of verses and syntagmatic relations, this thesis analyzes the four passages in Romans (Rom 1:16-17; 3:21-31; 4:1-5:2; 9:30-10:11), in which "faith" and "righteousness" appear in the same context. Following the analysis, this thesis comes to the conclusion that it is possible for "faith", "righteousness", and justification by faith to be understood from God's point of view, provided that they are linked to God or the context is related to God. Thus, "faith", "righteousness", and justification by faith can be interpreted as God's faithfulness, God's saving action , and God's saving action which is carried out by God's faithfulness respectively. These explanations coincide with the LXX understanding of "faith" and "righteousness" when these words are linked to God. However, the conclusion partly differs from and partly coincides with the interpretation of the twelve scholars who are discussed in the Introduction.
In Romans, justification by faith can be expressed from two different points of view. From God's point of view, justification by faith can be interpreted as God's saving action, which originates from God's endless faithfulness, is fulfilled and revealed by Christ's faithfulness, and sets free those who believe, through God's grace. This is a guarantee given by God. From the human perspective, justification by faith can be interpreted as: people believe in God's faithful saving action through God's grace, and their believing action is seen as correct action, thus establishing confidence in God's liberating action and salvation. This is the hope given by God. Therefore, God gives certainty and hope through both of these two different points of view of justification by faith. The certainty and hope bring forth the continuing believing action and faithful action in believers toward God and thus lead them to participate in God's act of new creation. All these things happen due to God's faithfulness and grace.
Not only that, those who are in Christ and experience the effects and changes resulting from God's saving action, are actually experiencing an act of new creation. This shows that the Triune God is faithful to the new creation. Therefore, justification by faith not only can be viewed from the perspective of Soteriology or Ecclesiology, it also can be interpreted from the Doctrine of God or of the Trinity. Furthermore, "faith" that is interpreted as God's faithfulness can remove the situation where "faith" is pitted against the works of law, or Gospel against Law. This is because the works of law, the faithfulness of God, and the saving action of God are actually the purposes which the Law aims to achieve. Therefore, both faithfulness and the saving action of God will help people break away from the bondage of sin. As a result, people are able to carry out the works of the law or correct action. In addition, God will continue to fulfill these three purposes of Law in those who believe through the involvement and support of the Holy Spirit.
As for "righteousness", it can be interpreted as God's saving action. This interpretation excludes the concepts of imputation, infusion, forensic acquittal, righteous status, or right relationship. God's saving action transfers the believers from the bondage of sin to a life in Christ and as a result the believers are set free (dikaio,w) by God. The action of setting people free is an action of new creation. Therefore, the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ seems to be more than expiation or atonement, but rather a kind of new creation. As a result, with the initiative action taken by God, people become a new creation in Christ and thus break away from the bondage of sin, so that he/she experiences the grace of setting free. This shows that Paul seems to have changed the past atonement concept. Consequently, the believers trust the power of Holy Spirit after being saved by God and are enabled to work out the correct action and become a righteous person. Hence, justification by faith expresses not only a concern for individual salvation or inclusion of Gentiles in the fellowship of God's people, it also expresses concern for the certainty and hope given by the God who is faithful, so that the believers are able to continue to believe and faithfully participate in God's new creation action in order to restore the relationship and order between God and humanity, human and human, and humanity and the world.
"Faith" can be interpreted as God's faithfulness, the endless faithfulness of God. The faithfulness of God dominates the saving action, so that the jeopardized relationship can be restored and renewed by the saving action of God. Therefore, through the faithfulness of God, the believers continue to believe and faithfully participate in God's new creation action. At the same time, the believers also hope for the certainty and hope given by God through the justification by faith in order that these promises can be fulfilled eschatologically by God's faithfulness.